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What Are Smart Contracts? Guide for Beginners



Smart contracts

Getting an exposure to smart contracts by understanding it completely

In this complicated world, it is very difficult to buy or sell huge assets such as a house or a farm which generally requires a large amount of money and a lot of paperwork.  Hence an estate agency is used as a middleman in order to make sure that the transaction is secure and safe and there is no betrayal from any side. They also act as an escrow which is a very crucial thing when large amounts of money are involved. The seller may not completely sell the property once he has received the money and the buyer also can betray the seller and therefore the agency makes sure that there is no betrayal, by charging some amount of fee on the transaction. This fee can be a huge amount for larger transactions. This problem is effectively solved by the usage of smart contract, a small contract act as a middleman and is a self-evaluating digital contract. Here it is completely similar to the agency which we discussed earlier but doesn’t charge that significant amount of fee and is also very trust-able. The transaction is done when certain conditions are met which is specified in the smart contract. Also, the transaction is witnessed by a large number of people and hence fault in the transaction is just Impossible. Here the functions of an estate agency are pre-programmed into the smart contract which then automatically execute by itself and it cannot be stopped until the transaction is completed.

A smart contract is basically like a vending machine where you put a certain amount of cryptocurrency and a respective item which is chosen is dropped into your account. all the rules and regulations are not only predefined but also enforced by the smart contact effectively.

There can also be interdependence between two or more smart contracts where the completion of one of the conditions in a particular smart contract can trigger an action in another smart contract and vice versa. Therefore any number of smart contracts can be chained in order to provide a proper functioning of a particular organization or any field for that matter.


  • Objects of a smart contract.


There are particularly three basic objects which are present in any smart contract:


    • Signatories.

The signatory is referred to as two or more parties which are going to use the smart contract on agreeing to the legal terms and conditions of the digital smart contract.


    • Subject.

This refers to the subject of the agreement and is probably the only object which stays completely within the smart contract’s environment. A smart contract is necessary to have direct and uninterrupted access to this particular object.


    • Specific terms.

All the possible specific terms and conditions must be specified in a particular smart contract, in the form of codes, depending on the environment which the smart contact is using. The terms include rules and regulations the punishment and reward conditions and all the possibilities. This part is very important as if there is any specific term or condition which is not specified here the smart contract might come to a grinding hold blocking the resources from both the parties.


  • Environment.

The most important feature in an environment that a smart contract should possess is the usage of the public key cryptography which is used by both the parties in order to sign off a transaction on the contract.

The next most important feature that a smart contract needs to possess is a completely decentralized automated database which all the parties of the smart contract can trust and witness the transaction.


And finally the source of the digital data that the smart contract is getting. This included the extreme usage of the root SSL Security certificates, https and all the other similar criteria required for an increased security.


  • How is it important

The smart contract gives the uses and number of powers and significant features which is not provided by any other existing Technology. Some If they are.


    • Autonomy.

It effectively eradicates the need for a third party and hence giving the users a complete autonomy.


    • Trust.

All the documents and the money which is entered into a smart contract can be played with or stolen by others. They are completely secure by its distributed ledger technology. Moreover, we need not worry about trusting the other party as the smart contract intelligently replaces the trust.


    • Savings.

By the traditional method of enforcing an agreement, a number of notaries are developed, Advisors and lawmakers have their own set of fees excluding the corruption required to get your work done. Smart contracts are effectively eliminating all of these saving you a lot of money.


    • Efficiency.

The usage of smart contracts in contrast to the traditional method a lot of time is being saved by preventing the lot of paperwork and their transfers that is to be done from authority to authority.

Smart contacts are really the future of enforcing an agreement in this revolutionizing digital world.

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Forbes releases top 50 blockchain companies list



Forbes has released top 50 blockchain companies using blockchain technology list and these are almost all household names of the world's largest companies.

Forbes has released a new top 50 blockchain companies using blockchain technology list and these are almost all household names of the world’s largest companies. In fact, they are all billion dollar plus companies such as Amazon, Citi Group, Foxconn, Comcast and a whole host of others and unsurprisingly the bulk majority of these companies are using Ethereum.


Although, outside of Ethereum which is, of course, the number 1 blockchain for these companies, we do see others like Hyperledger and Quorum for example, although much rarer on the list in terms of mentions are blockchains such as Stellar Lumens or Cardano. Blockchains such as TRON, EOS, NEM, and others are not mentioned in the list of top 50 companies.


Companies choosing Ethereum according to Forbes:

Big businesses really like what Ethereum is doing. Ethereum has also worked very hard to make these relationships happen over the last few years and those relationships are now paying dividends big time.


All the top 10 companies are located in China or the United States.

The Top 10 (Forbes List):

10. Ping An Insurance Company: China

9. Bank of China: China

8. Apple: United States

7. Wells Fargo & Company: United States

6. Bank of America: United States

5. Agricultural Bank of China: China

4. Berkshire Hathaway Inc: United States

3. JPMorgan Chase & Co: United States

2. China Construction Bank Corporation: China

1. Industrial and Commercial Bank of China: China


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Analysis: Decentralization is the future



decentralization is the basis of bitcoin blockchain. A development that has threatened to dig up decentralization is the creation of integrated circuits.

In 2008, when Satoshi Nakamoto wrote down the famous white paper in which he proposed a decentralized financial system, he did so in the context of crumbling banks and governments, which as a centralized institution, caused an economic collapse due to poor decision – making and management. Decentralization is the basis on which the entire Bitcoin blockchain is based, and that is why Bitcoin was created primarily to provide an alternative to the central authorities that operate our current global monetary system.

Today, the concept is challenged by the uncontrolled growth of Bitcoin mining – giants such as Bitmain, a Chinese mining company that continues to generate absurd profits and continues to monopolize the Bitcoin network in pursuit of industry dominance.


Ethereum Blockchain

The cryptocurrency economy has come to a conclusion – at least for the foreseeable future – Ether will continue to feed the ICOs and lay the foundations for distributed applications. Called Ethereum’s Proposals for Improvement ( EIPs ), they allow for massive participation in decisions that could radically change the future of the network. However, the use of EIPs Ethereum tries to embody the principle of the blockchain technology, namely centralization leads to errors and inefficiencies, while the network, with the right technology, can make better decisions and work more effectively. So, when companies such as Amazon and Chile’s Energy Authority support Ethereum, they do so in a project that advocates – and through EIPs – real practice decentralization.


The need of Decentralization:

Where buildings such as capitalism, money, and democracy need new codes, new software, updated smart contracts, better AI and a more united kingdom, full of corporate social responsibility, equal opportunities, and prosperity shared with all. It is not only software decentralization, but it is also the shift of human values to a new way of thinking about exchanges, energy and the shared future of humanity.

The blockchain technology, which offers an alternative to existing trading, governance and finance systems, has the potential to disrupt the industry and create new and exciting opportunities for billions around the world. A development that has threatened to dig up decentralization is the creation of integrated circuits or ASICs for applications. Even more complicated and challenging to decentralize is the rapidly changing world of hardware and the fact that a large technology company now produces most ASICs on the market.

While many Bitcoin advocates see the blockchain as nothing more than competition for existing payment methods or gold, others believe that the blockchain technology is the harbinger of things the world has never seen before.
Bitcoin’s market share has been declining slowly in recent years, and although many believe that bitcoin will continue to grow, there is a rapid rise in other parts of the blockchain ecosystem. When decentralized blockchain protocols begin to break down the central web services that dominate the current internet, we will begin to see real sovereignty on the internet.


The future of Decentralization:

Recently, blockchains have become the focus of attention as the first technology to use decentralized device networks. With the promise of full ownership and monetization of their data, blockchains are seemingly convincing alternatives to older third-party data farms. While blockchains use the increasing movement of increasingly powerful personal devices, they have a relatively limited use case and do not fully exploit the potential of paradigm shifts.

This is decentralization, which is a decisive factor in cryptocurrency and blockchain technology in general.
In addition to the major cases of well – known use, there are examples of massive companies that eliminate a “one – point failure” in their closed systems, for governments that approve university degrees. Secondly, governments have historically been serving exchanges with asset seizures, which have paralyzed merchants who hold large amounts of cryptocurrency in the market. If decentralized exchanges become a real reality, the regulatory war will become even more complex for legislators: their current strategy is to target exchanges that operate under their jurisdiction.

Blockchain technology can provide a new way of confirming identity, ways of moving data faster and cheaper, easier transactions such as payments, claims, and data sharing.

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Use Case: Blockchain in Automobile Industry



Blockchain technology has gained momentum in the automobile industry. Let's discuss some of the developments in the blockchain for autonomous vehicles.

The growing focus on data manipulation, better quality control and the need for faster business transactions have fuelled the growth of the automobile industry. The development of new products and partnerships by leading companies are likely to stimulate the growth of the blockchain in the untapped markets for the long term.

Blockchain in Automobile Industry

Blockchain technology has gained momentum in the automobile industry, and in the following sections, we will discuss some of the latest developments in the blockchain for autonomous vehicles. Blockchain technology is a fundamental technology that has opened a world of innovative opportunities for the automotive industry.

OEMs could use blockchain technology as a platform to improve their global vehicle cybersecurity, validate material bills, secure micropayments, improve identity management and improve data validation. Blockchain technology offers vital stakeholders in the buying and selling process an efficient payment system. With tailor-made solutions for the automotive industry through blockchain technology, the future looks bright. Blockchain technology can take advantage of the intelligent contract architecture that would improve the payment process.

Porsche is credited with being the first company in the industry to test the implementation of the blockchain in their systems. Porsche has tested how the blockchain technology can be used to lock and unlock a car. In addition, every time someone locks or unlocks a car, the data is recorded in the blockchain and no one can modify or modify it, making it easy to track who has used a vehicle at any given time.

There are endless possibilities, some of which have already been conceptualized – incentives to drive more environmentally friendly, car insurance and car financing, blockchain – based titles, remote – lock chains and unlock vehicles – the list goes on and on. With the blockchain proving to be the future of security, and with cars becoming essentially IoT devices, merging them together seems only natural.

Blockchain developers have experimented with off-network data storage solutions to optimize the number of data transmitted by block chains to improve scalability. By leveraging blockchain technology, drivers can contact remote users of the blockchain ecosystem for updates, nearby suppliers for remote availability, price negotiations. By leveraging Blockchain, users can instantly secure payments for media content and other services they want to have due to their reliability and transparency in transactions. IOT and Blockchain solutions can offer endless possibilities, ranging from safer and environmentally friendly driving behavior, improved and more affordable automobile insurance, to remotely lock and unlock vehicles and much more.

Although blockchain remains the backbone of Bitcoin, distributed ledger technology has proven to be useful as a standalone and secure solution for data structures. The use of blockchain technology to solve the challenges of data security connected to automobile is not only an option but also a necessity. For example, one block chain may contain bills for vehicle components, another blockchain may contain quality control records created during the production process, and another may contain information about the WIP for each vehicle assembly from beginning to end.

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